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The Ptolemies, Rise of a Dynasty

The Ptolemies, Rise of a Dynasty PDF Author: John D Grainger
Publisher: Pen and Sword History
ISBN: 1399090259
Category : History
Languages : en
Pages : 322

Book Description
In this first volume of his trilogy on the Ptolemies, John Grainger explains how Ptolemy I established the dynasty's power in Egypt in the wake of Alexander the Great's death. Egypt had been independent for most of the fourth century BC, but was reconquered by the Persian Empire in the 340s. This is essential background for Ptolemaic history since it meant that Alexander was welcomed as a liberator and, after the tyranny of Kleomenes, so was Ptolemy. This was the essential basis of Ptolemy’s power. He conciliated the Egyptians, but reinforced his military strength with Greek settlers, mainly retired or available soldiers. He built the city of Alexandria, but to his own requirements, not those planned by Alexander. The empire outside Egypt was acquired, perhaps for defence, perhaps by sheer greed. Ptolemy took over Cyrenaica (with difficulty), Cyprus and Syria/Palestine. These had to be defended against his rivals, hence the development of his navy, and the Syrian Wars. The succession was carefully managed, but was not directly hereditary (Ptolemy II was not the eldest son), and the new king was very different. He fought repeated wars in Syria, and in the Aegean, built up his navy to the greatest seen in the ancient world, and extended his empire into the lands of the Red Sea, Sudan and Ethiopia. He taxed the Egyptians mercilessly to fund all these activities. Yet few of his wars were successful, and he stored up trouble for his successors.

The Ptolemies, Rise of a Dynasty

The Ptolemies, Rise of a Dynasty PDF Author: John D Grainger
Publisher: Pen and Sword History
ISBN: 1399090259
Category : History
Languages : en
Pages : 322
Book Description
In this first volume of his trilogy on the Ptolemies, John Grainger explains how Ptolemy I established the dynasty's power in Egypt in the wake of Alexander the Great's death. Egypt had been independent for most of the fourth century BC, but was reconquered by the Persian Empire in the 340s. This is essential background for Ptolemaic history since it meant that Alexander was welcomed as a liberator and, after the tyranny of Kleomenes, so was Ptolemy. This was the essential basis of Ptolemy’s power. He conciliated the Egyptians, but reinforced his military strength with Greek settlers, mainly retired or available soldiers. He built the city of Alexandria, but to his own requirements, not those planned by Alexander. The empire outside Egypt was acquired, perhaps for defence, perhaps by sheer greed. Ptolemy took over Cyrenaica (with difficulty), Cyprus and Syria/Palestine. These had to be defended against his rivals, hence the development of his navy, and the Syrian Wars. The succession was carefully managed, but was not directly hereditary (Ptolemy II was not the eldest son), and the new king was very different. He fought repeated wars in Syria, and in the Aegean, built up his navy to the greatest seen in the ancient world, and extended his empire into the lands of the Red Sea, Sudan and Ethiopia. He taxed the Egyptians mercilessly to fund all these activities. Yet few of his wars were successful, and he stored up trouble for his successors.

The Ptolemies, Rise of a Dynasty

The Ptolemies, Rise of a Dynasty PDF Author: John D Grainger
Publisher: Pen and Sword History
ISBN: 1399090232
Category : History
Languages : en
Pages : 394
Book Description
In this first volume of his trilogy on the Ptolemies, John Grainger explains how Ptolemy I established the dynasty's power in Egypt in the wake of Alexander the Great's death. Egypt had been independent for most of the fourth century BC, but was reconquered by the Persian Empire in the 340s. This is essential background for Ptolemaic history since it meant that Alexander was welcomed as a liberator and, after the tyranny of Kleomenes, so was Ptolemy. This was the essential basis of Ptolemy’s power. He conciliated the Egyptians, but reinforced his military strength with Greek settlers, mainly retired or available soldiers. He built the city of Alexandria, but to his own requirements, not those planned by Alexander. The empire outside Egypt was acquired, perhaps for defence, perhaps by sheer greed. Ptolemy took over Cyrenaica (with difficulty), Cyprus and Syria/Palestine. These had to be defended against his rivals, hence the development of his navy, and the Syrian Wars. The succession was carefully managed, but was not directly hereditary (Ptolemy II was not the eldest son), and the new king was very different. He fought repeated wars in Syria, and in the Aegean, built up his navy to the greatest seen in the ancient world, and extended his empire into the lands of the Red Sea, Sudan and Ethiopia. He taxed the Egyptians mercilessly to fund all these activities. Yet few of his wars were successful, and he stored up trouble for his successors.

The Ptolemies, Rise of a Dynasty

The Ptolemies, Rise of a Dynasty PDF Author: GRAINGER D (JOHN.)
Publisher:
ISBN: 9781399090223
Category :
Languages : en
Pages : 320
Book Description
In this first volume of his trilogy on the Ptolemies, John Grainger explains how Ptolemy I established the dynasty's power in Egypt in the wake of Alexander the Great's death. Egypt had been independent for most of the fourth century BC, but was reconquered by the Persian Empire in the 340s. This is essential background for Ptolemaic history since it meant that Alexander was welcomed as a liberator and, after the tyranny of Kleomenes, so was Ptolemy. This was the essential basis of Ptolemy's power. He conciliated the Egyptians, but reinforced his military strength with Greek settlers, mainly retired or available soldiers. He built the city of Alexandria, but to his own requirements, not those planned by Alexander.The empire outside Egypt was acquired, perhaps for defense, perhaps by sheer greed. Ptolemy took over Cyrenaica (with difficulty), Cyprus and Syria/Palestine. These had to be defended against his rivals, hence the development of his navy, and the Syrian Wars.The succession was carefully managed, but was not directly hereditary (Ptolemy II was not the eldest son), and the new king was very different. He fought repeated wars in Syria, and in the Aegean, built up his navy to the greatest seen in the ancient world, and extended his empire into the lands of the Red Sea, Sudan and Ethiopia. He taxed the Egyptians mercilessly to fund all these activities. Yet few of his wars were successful, and he stored up trouble for his successors.

A History of the Ptolemaic Empire

A History of the Ptolemaic Empire PDF Author: Günther Hölbl
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 113511983X
Category : History
Languages : en
Pages : 416
Book Description
This compelling narrative provides the only comprehensive guide in English to the rise and decline of Ptolemaic rule in Egypt over three centuries - from the death of Alexander in 323 BC to the tragic deaths of Antony and Cleopatra in 30 BC. The skilful integration of material from a vast array of sources allows the reader to trace the political and religious development of one of the most powerful empires of the ancient eastern Mediterranean. It shows how the success of the Ptolemies was due in part to their adoption of many features of the Egyptian Pharaohs who preceded them - their deification and funding of cults and temples throughout Egypt.

A History of Egypt under the Ptolemaic Dynasty (Routledge Revivals)

A History of Egypt under the Ptolemaic Dynasty (Routledge Revivals) PDF Author: Edwyn Bevan
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317682246
Category : History
Languages : en
Pages : 415
Book Description
First published in 1927, this title presents a well-regarded study of this intriguing and often over-looked period of Egyptian history, both for the general reader and the student of Hellenism. Edwyn Bevan describes his work as ‘an attempt to tell afresh the story of a great adventure, Greek rule in the land of the Pharaohs...which ends with the astounding episode of Cleopatra’. The result is a remarkable synthesis of historical scholarship, prose style and breadth of vision, which will still prove to be of value to Egypt enthusiasts and students of Egyptology.

Ancient Complex Societies

Ancient Complex Societies PDF Author: Jennifer C. Ross
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1315305615
Category : Social Science
Languages : en
Pages : 428
Book Description
Ancient Complex Societies examines the archaeological evidence for the rise and functioning of politically and socially “complex” cultures in antiquity. Particular focus is given to civilizations exhibiting positions of leadership, social and administrative hierarchies, emerging and already developed complex religious systems, and economic differentiation. Case studies are drawn from around the globe, including Asia, the Mediterranean region, and the American continents. Using case studies from Africa, Polynesia, and North America, discussion is dedicated to identifying what “complex” means and when it should be applied to ancient systems. Each chapter attempts to not only explore the sociopolitical and economic elements of ancient civilizations, but to also present an overview of what life was like for the later population within each system, sometimes drilling down to individual people living their daily lives. Throughout the chapters, the authors address problems with the idea of complexity, the incomparability of cultures, and the inconsistency of archaeological and historical evidence in reconstructing ancient cultures.

Inheriting the Ancient Near East After Alexander the Great

Inheriting the Ancient Near East After Alexander the Great PDF Author: Charles River Charles River Editors
Publisher: Createspace Independent Publishing Platform
ISBN: 9781981491926
Category :
Languages : en
Pages : 158
Book Description
*Includes pictures *Includes ancient accounts *Includes a bibliography for further reading In 323 BCE, Alexander the Great was on top of the world. Never a man to sit on his hands or rest upon his laurels, Alexander began planning his future campaigns, which may have included attempts to subdue the Arabian Peninsula or make another incursion into India. But fate had other plans for the young Macedonian king. One night, while feasting with his admiral Nearchus, he drank too much and took to bed with a fever. At first, it seemed like the fever was merely a consequence of his excess, and there was not much concern for his health, but when a week had elapsed and there was still no sign of his getting better, his friends and generals began to grow concerned. The fever grew, consuming him to the point that he could barely speak. After two weeks, on June 11, 323 B.C., Alexander the Great, King of Macedon, Hegemon of the League of Corinth, King of Kings, died. On his deathbed, some historians claim that when he was pressed to name a successor, Alexander muttered that his empire should go "to the strongest." Other sources claim that he passed his signet ring to his general Perdiccas, thereby naming him successor, but whatever his choices were or may have been, they were ignored. Alexander's generals, all of them with the loyalty of their own corps at their backs, would tear each other apart in a vicious internal struggle that lasted almost half a century before four factions emerged victorious: Macedonia, the Seleucid Empire in the east, the Kingdom of Pergamon in Asia Minor, and the Ptolemaic dynasty in Egypt. During the course of these wars, Alexander's only heir, the posthumously born Alexander IV, was murdered, extinguishing his bloodline for ever. For a time, the Seleucids commanded the largest empire in the world as it stretched from the high plains and deserts of what is now Afghanistan in the east to parts of the Levant and Asia Minor in the west. The empire's early kings were strong and shrewd and committed to the ideas of Hellenism as much as holding power and expanding the realm of their empire, but later rulers did not prove as capable. In time, the Seleucid royal house often descended into orgies of violence which were driven by ambitious men and women. Despite its troubles and its sheer size and scope, the Seleucid Empire lasted for several centuries, and it would not truly reach its end until the heyday of the legendary Roman general Pompey the Great in the 1st century BCE. Although Alexander never lived to rule over Egypt, one of his generals, Ptolemy I, did, and it was he who established the last great pharaonic dynasty in Egypt, known as the Ptolemaic Dynasty. Despite the infighting among them, one thing Alexander's generals did agree upon was their Hellenistic culture. Most famously, Ptolemy's line firmly established the Hellenistic culture of the Greeks while ruling over Egypt, and by marrying within their family line, the Ptolemaic pharaohs kept their Hellenistic heritage until the very end of Ptolemy's line, which died with Cleopatra in 30 BCE. The Ptolemies gave ancient Egypt an injection of vitality that had not been seen in the Nile Valley for centuries, preserving many aspects of native Egyptian culture while adding their own layer of Hellenic culture. The first few Ptolemaic rulers proved as able as any of their Egyptian predecessors as they worked to make Egypt a first-rate power in the world once again. Unfortunately, these able rulers were followed by a succession of corrupt and greedy kings, more concerned with personal wealth and power than the stability and greatness of their kingdom. Eventually, Ptolemaic Egypt collapsed due to weak rulers, internal social problems, and the rising power of Rome, but before the Ptolemaic Dynasty was extinguished, it proved to be one of the most impressive royal houses in ancient Egyptian history.

The Rise of Empires

The Rise of Empires PDF Author: Sangaralingam Ramesh
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3030016080
Category : Political Science
Languages : en
Pages : 328
Book Description
This book describes and evaluates how institutional innovation and technological innovation have impacted on humanity from pre-historical times to modern times, and how societies have been transformed in history. The author interrogates the relationship between innovation and civilisation -– particularly the dynamic whereby innovation leads to empire-building -– and explores innovation efforts that stimulated economic and social synergies from the Babylonian Empire in 1900 BC up to the British Empire in the twentieth century. The author uses historical cross-cultural case studies to establish the factors which have given competitive advantages to societies and empires. This book will be of interest to researchers and students in political economy, economic history, economic growth and innovation economics.

Following Osiris

Following Osiris PDF Author: Mark Smith
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 019958222X
Category :
Languages : en
Pages : 704
Book Description
Osiris, god of the dead, was one of ancient Egypt's most important deities. The earliest secure evidence for belief in him dates back to the fifth dynasty (c.2494-2345BC), but he continued to be worshipped until the fifth century AD. Following Osiris is concerned with ancient Egyptian conceptions of the relationship between Osiris and the deceased, or what might be called the Osirian afterlife, asking what the nature of this relationship was and what the prerequisites were for enjoying its benefits. It does not seek to provide a continuous or comprehensive account of Egyptian ideas on this subject, but rather focuses on five distinct periods in their development, spread over four millennia. The periods in question are ones in which significant changes in Egyptian ideas about Osiris and the dead are known to have occurred or where it has been argued that they did, as Egyptian aspirations for the Osirian afterlife took time to coalesce and reach their fullest form of expression. An important aim of the book is to investigate when and why such changes happened, treating religious belief as a dynamic rather than a static phenomenon and tracing the key stages in the development of these aspirations, from their origin to their demise, while illustrating how they are reflected in the textual and archaeological records. In doing so, it opens up broader issues for exploration and draws meaningful cross-cultural comparisons to ask, for instance, how different societies regard death and the dead, why people convert from one religion to another, and why they abandon belief in a god or gods altogether.

The Rise and Fall of Ancient Egypt

The Rise and Fall of Ancient Egypt PDF Author: Toby Wilkinson
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 1408852985
Category : Social Science
Languages : en
Pages : 672
Book Description
This is a story studded with extraordinary achievements and historic moments, from the building of the pyramids and the conquest of Nubia, through Akhenaten's religious revolution, the power and beauty of Nefertiti, the glory of Tutankhamun's burial chamber, and the ruthlessness of Ramesses, to Alexander the Great's invasion, and Cleopatra's fatal entanglement with Rome. As the world's first nation-state, the history of Ancient Egypt is above all the story of the attempt to unite a disparate realm and defend it against hostile forces from within and without. Combining grand narrative sweep with detailed knowledge of hieroglyphs and the iconography of power, Toby Wilkinson reveals Ancient Egypt in all its complexity.